Galbanum gum is an aromatic gum extracted by the dished scraping of the stem part, the stem’s bottom, or cutting the stem of the galbanum plant.

What is galbanum resinoid?

Where is the source of Galbanum resinoid?

Galbanum (Scientific name: Ferula gummosa Boiss) is a tall, perennial herb with small flowers and shiny leaves.

A large perennial herb with a smooth stem, shiny leaflets, and small flowers. It contains resin ducts that exude milky juice, a natural oleoresin. The dried resinous exudation is collected by incisions at the stem’s base.

The family name Ferula refers to the sheath-like sleeve that “Clasps” the hollow stems of most of this family of perennial herbs. A term we still use today is ferrule.

Ferula (from Latin ferula, 'rod') is a genus of about 220 flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, native to the eastern Mediterranean region. Still, Iran is the main motherland of this plant.
The plant can be found in the mountain regions in the center and northeast of Iran.

Ferula Gummosa and Ferula Rubricaulis, Ferula schair Borsez ، Ferula galbaniflua Boiss, Ferula rabri caulis Boiss are the main species!

The Ferula galbaniflua plant can grow up to 2 meters in height. The plant has a thick stalk and characteristic umbrella flower. The Galbanum plant is originally from Iran and inhabits north Africa, Southern Europe, and Western Asia.

In Iran, it grows in the mountains of the country’s north, center, and west, at 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level.

This plant is distributed in the provinces of Razavi and North Khorasan, Hamedan, Fars, Qazvin, Zanjan, Tehran, Arak, and Mazandaran.

Thirty species of Ferula have been represented in Iranian flora, of which some are endemic (e.g., Ferula gummosa, Ferula persica, and Ferula tabasensis)

Iranian Galbanum- Ferula gumosa

  • • Botanical family: Apiaceae

• Form of culture: Controlled wild culture

• Harvest period: July through September

F. gummosa root is glandular and rich in oleo-gum-resin too. These exudates are commonly referred to as galbanum.
Ferula gummosa Boiss is a perennial herbaceous wild plant of 0.8-3 m in height, indigenous to Iran, which can live about 6-8 years.
  • Herbaceous grows in high altitudes and sparsely populated areas.
  • The plant grows a huge deep root, which develops growth after three years. These are incised for the resin they contain. The gum/resin then solidifies on contact with air and is used in the composition of some incense sticks. After processing, the resin is also used to make essential oils widely used in perfumes to give a green note.
Galbanum might be listed under a variety of names, such as:
Ferula galbaniflua, Ferule gommeuse, Ferula gummosa, Ferula gummosa Boiss, galbano galbanum gum, galbanum gum resin, galbanum oleogum resin, galbanum oleoresin.

Types of Galbanum gum:

Teardrop (Galbanum en larmes): if the stem is naturally scratched or bitten by an insect! The drops secreted gradually are placed on each other’s backs!

This type is called the teardrop, yellowish-white or greenish-yellow or reddish, and the size of a regular pea; if it is broken, it breaks into pieces and becomes powder!

Tear-like gum is collected manually from insect-fed and natural scorched or scorching plants.

The teardrop type is greenish white or red in size, about the size of a hazelnut, and its cross-section, if broken, is clear yellow, which darkens in the presence of air.
Barijeh gum, Galbanum en larmes Caused by natural pores
  • Mass-like (Galbanum en sorte): this type consists of irregular and paste-shaped segments of different sizes!

Its color is different, often greenish, brownish-green, yellowish, or dark green.

The gum has a strong smell and taste, bitter, aromatic, biting, and unpleasant. This type is commercial which is being used in different industries!

The harvest of the fragrant resin begins in late spring and ends in late summer. By separating a small layer of the root, the resin starts bleeding. In the drying phase, the color changes from yellow to red.

The gum resin contains 5 to 10 percent Of volatile oil, about 60 percent Of resin, and 20 percent Of gum, together with moisture, mineral constituents, and impurities.

Collecting and storage of Galbanum gum for commercial purposes:

The primary procedure is removing the soil around the higher than three-year-old plants and then vertical cutting on stems.

Galbanum is an aromatic gum resin product of certain umbelliferous Persian plant species in the genus Ferula.

Galbanum shows good growth due to winter precipitations between 6-7 years old plants Tear-like gum is collected manually from insect-fed and natural scorched plants or scorching plants.

To collect honey Galbanum, a scorching process must be undertaken. For this purpose, the primary procedure is removing the soil around the higher than three-year-old plants and then vertical cutting on stems.

Shading should be prepared for cut stems to prevent rain and sun irradiation damage to stems. Another method for collecting Galbanum gum is commonly identified as Shirazi or Eghlidi. Vertical cuts are made on the plant stem, and the gum will be collected after a week.

Other commercial information:

 Botanical Name: Ferula Galbaniflua Synonyms: F. gummosa, galbanum gum, galbanum resin,bubonion and Galbanum resin (Ferula spp.) 

Most Important commecila data for Galbanum gum

General information for Galbanum gum
Most Important commecila data for Galbanum gum

Galbanum resinoid:

Resinoids are extracts of resinous plant exudates (balsams, oleo gum resins, and natural oleoresins).

The most precious production of Galbanum is Galbanum essential oil which is clear in color and is the result of the steam distilled process of the Galbanum gum resin.

Resins are formed in specialized structures called passages ducts. Resins exude or ooze out from the bark of the trees and tend to harden on exposure to air. When the essential oil is extracted from the resin using a solvent or steam distilled process, the resulting residual matter, which is dense, is termed RESINOIND.

The refined resinoids are lighter, non-sticky, and highly aromatic and are generally used in aromatherapy and perfumery as fixatives.

Galbanum resinoid is extracted from crude galbanum gum produced by the Ferula galbaniflua plant; then, it is filtered to remove contaminants and remain solvent-free.

The final resinoid is used in a vast array of perfumery products, though its name may differ on a regional basis.

Galbanum Resinoid has a rich green odor, often compared to fresh foliage or bell peppers.

The product is typically used as a fixative ingredient within floral, woody, or moss-based fragrances, blending exceptionally well with other green or balsamic elements.

Galbanum Resinoid is also highly tenacious and can mellow out otherwise-harsh components, providing a high level of versatility within its fragrance applications.

Moreover, The resinoid is widely used in wound healing and is a skin rejuvenator.

AROMA & FLAVOR OF GALBANUM RESINOID

The aroma is rich and green, with a woody and balsamic tinge reminiscent of fresh foliage. Odor also carries a distinctively resinous, coniferous top note and a heavily dry undertone.

Its odor profile is ambery-green, sweet, balsamic, and resinous with hints of freshness. It is one of a small number of green base notes of natural origin.

It is considered by some the aromatic epitome of green.

EXTRACTION METHOD OF GALBANUM RESINOID

The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the dried resinous gum. It is a pale yellow to yellow liquid with a balsamic, somewhat spicy, characteristic odor. Its main constituents include myrcene, cadinene, d-α-pinene, β-pinene, and sesquiterpene alcohols.

The resinoid once was prepared by hydrocarbon solvent extraction and subsequent evaporation of the solvent; today, a high-boiling, odorless solvent is added before evaporation; this solvent is left in the finished commercial product. The solvent-free resinoid is a dark-amber, viscous liquid with a characteristic balsamic odor. It yields turbid solutions in alcohol.

The plants can also be steam distilled, producing clear – yellow oil. Despite having quite different scents, the resinoid and the oil are used for the same purposes in perfumery – as a fixative. (A fixative is an ingredient used to stabilize other materials in a formula helping the perfume to last longer on the skin.)

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